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in the Collection of 
the Cooper-Hewitt 

The Smithsonian 
Institution's National 
Museum of Design 






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in the Collection of 
the Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum • 

APR 41983 

The Smithsonian 
Institution's National 
Museum of Design 

front coi'er: 

William Cripps (active from about 1743, 

died about 1767) 

London, England 

Tea caddy (one of a pair), 17^2-17^3 


Gift of the Trustees of the Estate of 

J^mes Hazen Hyde 

i960- 1 - 1 

inside front and back covers: 

from Hans Sebald Beham (1500-1550) 

"The Saxon Mine" 1528 

Colleccion Cooper-Hewitt Picture Library 

Photographs by Alan Fairley 

Design by Heidi Humphrey 

© 1980 by The Smithsonian Institution 

All rights reserved 

Library of Congress Catalog No. 80-69558 


Designers and craftsmen in the precious 
metals — gold, silver, and platinum — have 
traditionally held a distinguished place in 
the history of design and decorative arts. In 
contrast to woodworkers, ceramists, or 
glassblowers, these artisans work with 
materials that are inherently valuable, even 
in their raw and unfinished state . This has 
meant that decorative and functional ob- 
jects made of silver and gold such as domes- 
tic tablewares, ecclesiastical and royal ap- 
purtenances, and jewelry, have been trea- 
sured and preserved not only because of 
their design or their symbolic value, but 
also because of the basic worth of the metal . 
The precious metals are among the most 
permanent and stable materials that have 
been used m the making of beautiful and 
useful objects, and yet among the most 
susceptible to destruction through melting 
or refashioning. Treasures that have re- 
mained in an original form from the past 
are few in comparison to the number that 
once existed. 

A museum collection preserves rare and 
unique documents of decorative arts history 
for posterity against the tides of econom ic 
necessity. The Cooper-Hewitt collection of 
silver and other precious metals has grown 
steadily since the founding of the Museum. 

The collection is comprised of objects of 
primarily European origin and illustrates 
many major styles and forms used by silver- 
smiths and goldsmiths from the 17th cen- 
tury to the ptesent. 

This publication provides an introduction 
to the collection of silver in the Cooper- 
Hewitt Museum. It was made possible 
through the kindness and generosity of the 
Sterling Silversmiths Guild of America 
whose members are The Gorham Com- 
pany, International Silver Company, 
Samuel Kirk & Son, Inc., Lunt Silver- 
smiths, Oneida Silversmiths, Reed & Bar- 
ton, The Stieff Company, Towle Silver- 
smiths, and Wallace Silversmiths. 

Lisa Taylor 

" Silver Workshop in che i8ch Century" 

from Denis Diderot Encyclopedie 

Pans, 1771 

Collection Cooper-Hewitt Picture Library 

The recognition and use of metals is an 
ancient and distinguished fact in human 
history. Nearly every stage in the progres- 
sive development of metallurgical knowl- 
edge has been documented by objects that 
reflect both the intellectual comprehension 
of the nature of materials and the human 
need to reshape raw materials into forms 
that are functional and pleasing to the eye. 
Early man first recognized the utility of 
those metals that were readily available or 
accessible in a native state; copper and 
gold, for instance, often appeared as 
nuggets or solid masses that could be col- 
lected or extracted easily from the earth. 
Native finds of such metals could be shaped 
by simple hammering with virtually no in- 
termediary steps. Understandably, these 
two metals were the first to be shaped by 
man to fulfill specific purposes. From the 
outset, metals were treasured rarities and 
treated with concomitant respect and ad- 
miration. At the preliminary stages of 
metallurgical science it was recognized 
that metals were more malleable than 
stone, more durable than wood, and could 
be treated to produce a lustrous or reflective 
surface. Metals could also be subjected to 
heat to transform the solids into fiery 
liquids that could be poured into pre- 
determined shapes. All later developments 

in the history of metalworking are based on 
these simple but astounding qualities of 
the materials. 

A major advance in the understanding of 
the potential of metal — either precious or 
base — was the discovery that metals are 
not always found in a pure state, but that 
they may exist "trapped" within a compos- 
ite mixture of elements that have different 
melting temperatures. By heating such 
composite "ores," the various constituent 
metals are released. Mining of ores for 
purification by heat refining became a 
major industry, and the entire process 
rapidly took on a scientific character. Al- 
though silver may be found in a native 
state, most often it is contained in rich lead 
ores; the growth of the silver industry was 
dependent upon a sophisticated technology 
that permitted the precious substance to be 
extracted from the ore. 

Silver was appreciated as a precious metal 
somewhat later than gold, but its use can 
be traced to the prehistoric era. Silver was 
prized by many ancient civilizations and, 
like gold, symbolic and magical qualities 
were credited to it. In the ancient Near 
East, for example, gold and silver were 
identified cosmically with the worship of 
the sun and moon. Silver and gold continue 

to enjoy special distinctions within the 
family of metals. Until the nineteenth cen- 
tury they were, in fact, the only metals 
classified as "precious." Today, only 
platinum and platinum-related metals 
share this position of eminence. The pre- 
ciousness of gold and silver is the result of 
several inherent properties, as well as im- 
pressive acquired significance. Of basic 
importance is the fact that gold and silver 
are the most malleable of metals. This 
means that they are easily shaped and 
stretched by the application of pressure. 
Gold is the more malleable of the two, and 
is capable of being flattened to a semi- 
transparent thinness without breaking or 

The sisterhood of the two metals is also 
revealed by their shared property oi ductil- 
ity, a characteristic that was early recog- 
nized and appreciated by metalworkers. 
Ductility of a metal is its ability to be 
drawn or pulled into the form of a wire. 
One ounce of gold may be stretched into 
wire several miles in length without break- 
ing. Again, silver is second only to gold in 
this property. 

Both silver and gold are highly lustrous , a 
third characteristic that man has found of 
primary interest for thousands of years. 

Both metals can be polished to mirror-like 
brilliance and do not become dull with use 
or handling . Although silver may tarnish 
when in contact with polluted air or sul- 
phurous substances, it is nearly as non- 
corrodible and as non-tarnishing as gold 
when free from such agents. Both metals, 
and gold in particular, came to symbolize 
permanence, stability, and purity. These 
attributes have made the two metals im- 
portant standards in most world religions, 
social systems, and economic structures. 

Gold and silver are also among therarest of 
metals. This quality alone has given the 
two metals a desirability far above all other 
base metals. Silver and gold have never lost 
this position of pre-eminence, as our mone- 
tary system and luxury trades indicate. 
From the earliest historic periods to the 
present day, auspicious occasions, special 
events, and ecclesiastical and domestic 
rituals have been celebrated and com- 
memorated with the use of the two metals . 

Since craftsmen began working silver and 
gold, the forms of the objects made, the 
functions that they serve, and the decora- 
tion that is a part of them have changed 
dramatically over time. It is often possible 
to recognize the age and origin of an object 
of silver or gold by its physical appearance 
alone. Each culture or society, each genera- 
tion, and each craftsman endows an object 
with distinct characteristics that indicate 
its position in the history of design . How- 
ever, the ways in which craftsmen have 
manipulated silver and gold from the ini- 
tial processes to the final completion of an 
object have changed astonishingly little 
over the millenia. During the late i8th and 
19th centuries, mechanized processes began 
to replace many of the activities formerly 
accomplished by the hand; however, a 
modern handwrought object in silver or 
gold still requires the knowledge of 
techniques that have been a part of the vo- 
cabulary of metalsmiths for at least 4000 

years. A craftsman learns the potentials and 
limitations of materials through a continu- 
ous process of experimentation and repeti- 
tion. An understanding of the manner in 
which materials have been shaped by the 
hand and mind of the craftsman brings the 
process of design into clearer focus. Silver 
and gold literally and figuratively reflect 
the society that uses precious metals; 
through the examination of some of the 
multiple aspects of history that surround 
an object, an insight into the process of 
design is permitted. The Cooper-Hewitt 
collection is comprised of silver represent- 
ing diverse cultures, periods, styles and de- 
signs, with a majority of works dating from 
the post-Renaissance period to the present. 
Within this time framework can be seen 
facets of the aesthetic, social, political, and 
economic setting that give texture to the 
genealogy of the decorative arts. 

By the 17 th century, nearly every European 
nation had a firmly established tradition of 
design in the precious metals. Silver and 
gold were central to the economies of any 
geographic entity, and the craftsman who 
worked in the field was an essential con- 
tributor to the survival of the society. Not 
only were these craftsmen the primary 
agents in the circulation of precious metals 
in the form of objects, but the integrity of 
their work, the purity of their materials, 
and the conscientious control of standards 
that they were required to exercise assured 
their status in society. Their materials were 
not only used for the luxury trade but were 
directly related to the currency of their na- 
tive land. It was accepted that an object of 
wrought silver or gold could be converted 
at any time to usable currency or bullion by 
its owner, and any variance in the standard 
of purity between the object and the cur- 
rency could spell disaster The silversmiths 
and goldsmiths were responsible for main- 
taining the quality of such standards , and 
any deception in their practices could have 

devastating economic consequences. As a 
matter of self-protection, and often at the 
behest of civil authorities, precious-metal 
workers joined together to form guilds of 
goldsmiths. In the guild structure, no dis- 
tinction was made between workers in 
silver and gold, and the term "goldsmith" 
always covered work in either or both 

Guilds not only enforced among their own 
members an adherence to accepted stan- 
dards of alloying and fashioning of the 
metals, but also provided a training re- 
source for the education of future 
craftsmen. Demanding and closely super- 
vised apprenticeship systems were evolved 
in which the candidate for guild member- 
ship had to prove his knowledge of all as- 
pects of the art and craft by training with a 
certified guild master, and meeting all re- 
quirements of the guild authorities. 

Certain centers of silversmithing had de- 
veloped particularly strong and influen- 
tial guilds and were known for the quality 
of their workmanship and designs. 
Among the leading centers in Europe 
during the i6th and 17th centuries was the 
renowned city of Augsburg, which 
boasted a substantial number of quality 
workshops and exported silver and gold 
to many other parts of Europe. In the 
Cooper-Hewitt collection is a superb or- 
namental charger (Figures la-f) by the 
Augsburg master Adolf Gaap, who was 
active in that city from about 1664 onward 
and died in 169J. Of impressive size, this 
charger embodies several general con- 
cepts of design current in 17th-century 
Germany. An important aspect of the 
charger is its size, indicating a public 
display of wealth . The charger was prob- 
ably never intended for practical use since 
the highly embossed decoration miti- 
gates its function as a serving dish; its real 
use was to serve as an elegant reminder of 

Adolf Gaap (died 169^) 

Augsburg, Germany 

Charger, 1689 

Silver and silver-gilt 

Gift of the Trustees of the Estate 

of James Hazen Hyde 1960-1-21 

I b. Detail of the central relief 

'■Alexander mourning the death of Dariu 

c. Detail; Figure of Asia 

d. Detail: Figure of Europe 

e. Detail; Figure of Africa 

f. Detail: Figure of America 

the taste and the wealth of the owner. The 
charger is fashioned of extremely thin 
sheets of silver hammered from the un- 
derside in a process known as "emboss- 
ing" to produce sculptural three- 
dimensional figures and foliage. The 
malleability of silver made such virtu- 
oso work possible, but also allowed 
a relatively small amount of silver to 
give the impression of greater weight 
and substance. 

The iconography of the piece also 
suggests certain intellectual interests of 
the 17th century; the revival of interest in 
the classical world during the Renais- 
sance had become an accepted part of the 
design vocabulary within the decorative 
arts by this period. In the center of the 
dish is an oval (Figure ib) that depicts 
Alexander the Great mourning the death 
of King Darius, the latter shown in his 
battle chariot. The source for this com- 
position can be traced to contemporary 
engravings circulated extensively among 
scholars and collectors. Not only were the 
patrons of 17th-century silversmiths still 
enjoying the world of classical legend, 
but also the contemporary field of geo- 
graphic exploration . Around the edge of 
the charger are four additional inset 

panels that personify the four continents 
of the world; Asia (Figure ic) in a chariot 
drawn by a pair of massive elephants; 
Europe (Figure id) accorded the honor of 
position at the top of the charger; Africa 
(Figure le) with a peacock feather parasol 
and paired lions; and America (Figure lO, 
whose chariot is drawn improbably by 
two outsized armadillos. These panels are 
surrounded by a writhing network of 
scrolled foliage, fruit clusters, and 
trophies, all enriched by a layer of gold to 
assure the awesome splendor of the 

Not all 17th-century silver was conceived 
or executed on such a grand and imposing 
scale, nor did all have such a purely or- 
namental function. Drinking vessels, 
such as beakers and bowls, also consti- 
tuted a large portion of the output of 
silversmiths' workshops. A beaker made 
in Danzig (Figure 2) is typical of a tradi- 
tional shape. Made in the second half of 
the century, this beaker reflects a conser- 
vative form that remained popular for 
centuries. This example, however, incor- 
porates timely and fashionable decoration 
on its surface. The world of observable 
nature is depicted on the beaker in a par- 
rot tulip, lily, and narcissus bloom. These 

exotic bulbs and plants were prized by 
horticulturists and suppliers alike. The 
motifs have been applied to the surface of 
the beaker with the delicate and careful 
use of a hammer and punch, a technique 
known to silversmiths as "chasing." A 
more abstract sense of natural form is in- 
corporated at the lip and base of the 
beaker, suggestive of marine life, with 
convoluted ear-like folds depicted as a 
continuous border. A restrained luxury of 
decoration is indicated by the gilt in- 
terior, foot ring, and floral motifs. Until 
quite recently the traditional manner of 
gilding silver was to amalgamate gold 
with mercury to form a thick paste . The 
paste was applied to the silver surface; 
when subjected to heat the mercury 
burned off in a toxic vapor, leaving be- 
hind a residue of gold. Needless to say, 
mercury gilding was exceedingly hazard- 
ous to the health of the craftsmen, for 
whose services a substantial fee was paid, 
but whose careers were generally 
short. Since the layer of gold on mer- 
cury-gilded pieces was thin, it nearly al- 
ways suffered through use, and only 
traces of the gold remain on portions of 
this beaker. 

Guild traditions in Europe can be traced to 
the medieval period, and the guild of 
goldsmiths was particularly well organized 
in London. By the late 17th and early 18th 
centuries, English silversmiths had proven 
their united effort to maintain the quality 
of their art. The Worshipful Company of 
Goldsmiths, formally chartered by Edward 
III in 1327 (although a guild was known to 
exist as early as 1180), required that all of the 
legitimate members of the guild enter, at 
the guild hall, a record of their personal 
mark used on silver In addition to this 
protective stamp, which clearly indicated 
the workshop from which a piece of silver 
came, additional systems of counter check- 
ing were instituted over the years that vir- 
tually assured the quality and integrity of 
English work. Although most countries in 
Europe developed their own system of con- 
trolling the purity and quality of silver, a 
typical set of late 18th-century English 
marks (Figure 3) reveals quite specific in- 
formation. Since each piece of wrought 
silver was required to pass an assay master's 
test for the purity of the alloy used in all 
parts of the object, a series of marks placed 
on the object at the guild hall (hence, 
"hallmarks") specifies where and when the 
assay was made, assures the buyer that the 
alloy was up to standard, and that any 

Maker's mark: "PHL" in a 
Danzig, Germany 
Beaker, about 1650- [67 5 
Silver and silver-gilt 
Gift of the Misses Hewitt 

. Set ofhallmarki: 
Henry Chawner; Sterling Silver; London 
1790-1791; duty matk 

necessary taxes or duties had been paid on 
the silver. In the example illustrated , the 
initials "HC" in an oval are those entered in 
the ledgers of Goldsmiths' Hall by Henry 
Chawner on November 11,1786. The figure 
of a striding lion indicates that the silver 
used in the fabrication of the object was at 
least as pure as the sterling standard; in 
other words, each 1000 parts of metal is 
composed of no less than 92^ parts of pure 
silver. The remaining 75- parts constitute 
the allowable alloy. In most cases, the alloy 
metal used for silver was copper. This 
metal combines freely with pure silver, 
which alone is too soft for use and makes it 
stronger. The crowned lion's head mark at- 
tests to the fact that the silver was assayed 
in London. The letter "P" in a shaped 
stamp indicates that the assay was made 
between 1790 and 1791 , the date letter being 
changed annually. The portrait head mark, 
used from 1784 until 1890 and since then 
occasionally for commemorative purposes, 
depicts the reigning sovereign and verified 
that any tax or duty on the silver had been 
paid. The English hallmarking system has 
had various deviations from the system de- 
scribed, but the assurance given by such 
marks is clear: a dishonest silversmith 
could be easily traced by his personal mark 
on the piece , and suspect assay masters or 

offices could be precisely described, includ- 
ing the city and year when the assay was 

By the early years of the 18th century, En- 
glish silversmiths were enjoying a re- 
vitalized period of production. The 17th- 
century Civil Wars had ended, the monar- 
chy under Charles II had been trium- 
phantly restored in 1660, and a rising class 
of wealthy merchants provided constant 
encouragement to the craft with orders of 
substantial amounts of silver for domestic 
use and display. With the introduction and 
popularization of new delights for the pa- 
late in the form of coffee, tea, and choco- 
late, silversmiths found an eager market for 
tablewares made to facilitate and enhance 
the taking of enjoyment from these drinks. 
A tea kettle and stand by the London sil- 
versmith William Fawdery (Figure 4) is 
representative of the quality of design and 
conscientious execution of silver vessels 
during this "classic" period. The kettle is 
supported upon a substantial frame that 
contains its own spirit lamp to heat the 
water. The body of the pot is capacious and 
the facetted spout fitted with a diminutive 
hinged flap to prevent steam evaporation. 
Since silver is known to be a good conduc- 
tor of heat, its use for such heating utensils 

was logical. However, its conductive prop- 
erties also made it uncomfortable or 
even dangerous to handle when heated; 
silversmiths often incorporated non- 
conductive handles and finials of wood or 
other materials on tea and coffee vessels to 
prevent unexpected surprises. 

The career of the silversmith who made this 
kettle is typical of the lives of many sil- 
versmiths active in early 1 8th-century Lon- 
don. William Fawdery was apprenticed as 
a youth to another silversmith of distinc- 
tion, Robert Cooper, in 1683. In 1694, Faw- 
dery had completed his apprenticeship (the 
usual length of time was about 7 years) and 
was "freed" by the Worshipful Company of 
Goldsmiths. This meant that Fawdety was 
allowed to operate his own wotkshop, have 
assayed and sell his products, and take on 
his own apprentices. Fawdery 's shop was 
located on "Gold" street, a part of the area 
in London where a majority of silver- 
smiths set up their shops near the guild 
hall. Being a native silvetsmith, Fawdery 
was among the London silversmiths who 
objected to the large number of Huguenot 
goldsmiths who were moving to London to 
avoid religious persecution in France, and 
signed a petition to restrict the activities of 
these "foreigners. " As was often the case, 

Edward Barrett 
Dublin, Ireland 
Pair of footed salv 
Gift of I: 

n Untermyer 


upon Fawdery's death around 1727, his 
widow Hester entered her own mark at 
Goldsmiths' Hall and carried on the family 
business. There is no indication, however, 
that Hester Fawdery was a trained sil- 
versmith in her own right. 

London was not, of course, the only active 
center for silversmithing in the i8th cen- 
tury. A vital organization of craftsmen was 
also flourishing in Ireland, particularly in 

A pair of early 18th-century Irish footed 
salvers (Figures 5a,b) consists of a flat dish 
with a molded edge supported on a hollow 
trumpet-shaped foot. Unimposing in de- 
sign and ascetic in decoration, each salver is 
engraved with a family coat of arms within 
a scroll and foliage cartouche. An inscrip- 
tion on the underside of each links the pair 
to the family of Louis Crommelin, and 
suggests that they may have been pur- 
chased or acquired by the family to com- 
memorate the death of a relative. 

English tradition in the design and man- 
ufacture of silver extended itself across the 
vast expanse of the Atlantic Ocean, where 
in colonial America many silversmiths 
plied their trade in the active young cities 
of Boston, Philadelphia, and New York. 

4. William Fawdery (active from about 1694, 
presumably dead 1727) 
London, England 

Teakettle and stand with spirit lamp, 1711-1712 
Silver (Britannia standard) 
Gift of Irwin Untermyer 
1957-1 [-1 


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onoeTtrtcrf , iot3 in ^^^ 

•^•r'ifi/ . mm Gnaden - 
Zifhen ,^em 

feo/y tyftickael 

••chrd„i . 

Abraham Drentwet (died lySf) 
Augsburg, Germany 
Trophy cup. 1773-1775 

Anonymous gift 

Not all early American silversmiths were of 
English extraction or training and the 
Dutch and French immigrants both con- 
tributed greatly to the formation of an 
American style; however, the English 
methods of working in precious metals 
were clearly evident. A simple porringer 
(Figure 6) in the Museum collection is the 
work of the Boston silversmith Jacob 
Hurd, whose mark is stamped on the upper 
surface of the pierced foliate handle. The 
porringer form was known in the 17th cen- 
tury in America, and remained popular 
throughout the i8th. Most American sil- 
versmiths made porringers in the course of 
their careers and the form was frequently 
used as a commemorative piece to celebrate 
marriages, often indicated by the initials of 
owners or couples engraved or pricked on 
the handle surface. 

No governmental agency in the colonies 
enforced legal requirements regarding the 
alloying or assaying of silver in America 
during the 17th and i8th centuries. Since 
the majority of the founders of the tradition 
of silversmithing had trained within the 
guild and apprenticeship system of the Old 
World, standard practices were main- 
tained. American silversmiths were ap- 
prenticed in a manner similar to those in 

6. Jacob Hurd (1702-1758) 
Boston, Massachusetts 
Porringer, about 1740 

Gift of Henry Chauncey 

Europe, and the respect for their art and 
craft that was thus transmitted continued 
to flourish in the colonies. Most notable of 
the survivals of tradition is the mainte- 
nance of the purity of the sterling alloy in 
the absence of an assaying system. Recent 
tests offer no evidence that early American 
silversmiths intentionally debased the 
standard of their wares. 

American silversmiths worked for an audi- 
ence that was certainly more limited in 
numbers than in Europe and often more 
limited in resources to afford the luxury. 
Silver in America frequently assumed 
ceremonial status within both organiza- 
tions and families. The loss of a piece of 
silver was clearly loss of money , but silver 
in recognizable form could sometimes be 
traced by description if lost or stolen. Col- 
onial newspapers often contain advertise- 
ments seeking the whereabouts of a miss- 
ing piece of silver, described in specific 
form and sometimes even with a notation 
regarding the maker of the piece. 

While colonial Americans were nurturing 
a nascent tradition of silversmithing in the 
New World, European centers continued 
to produce master works in silver and gold 
for an affluent and status-conscious audi- 

ence. Silver was used for practical daily 
functions like dining and tea-drinking, 
but also for commemorative purposes of 
esoteric intent. A trophy cup from Augs- 
burg in the Cooper-Hewitt collection ex- 
emplifies such a rarified use of silver as a 
testimonial award (Figure 7).The cup is in- 
tended to serve as a drinking vessel and the 
inscription and ornamentation clearly in- 
dicate the context of a hunt. Depicted on 
the cover is a cast, three-dimensional stag. 
The inscription below describes the partic- 
ipants in the hunt for a spectacular 24-point 
beast, the number of animals used in the 
hunt, the distances travelled, and the de- 
nouement of the story — because of the 
stag's unusual beauty it was released after 
capture. The pear-shaped body of the cup is 
embossed with connected scrolls, amidst 
which are depicted various prey — rabbit, 
boar, stag, and fowl. 

It was not uncommon for pieces of silver 
to be carried by their owner on journeys or 
voyages, assuring the traveller the same 
luxuries on the road that he or she enjoyed 
at home. Numerous travelling services 
made ofsilver are known, including virtu- 
ally complete sets for dining tables and 
boudoirs. Such services often incorporate 
in the design additional necessities made of 

Thomas Heming (active from 

died between 179J-1801) 

London, England 

Cake basket, 17^8-1759 


Gift of Mrs. J. A. Q. Franl<s 


porcelain or glass. Elaborate carrying cases, 
frequently lined with velvet or silk and 
bound in fine stained leather or shagreen, 
were constructed to hold the movable 
luxuries. This cup is equipped with a simu- 
lated lacquer case, decorated with gold and 
polychrome colors, and lined with green 
silk velvet. 

The rococo decoration on this cup is re- 
strained in comparison with other exam- 
ples of the mid- 1 8th-century style in orna- 
mental silver. A basket made in London 
around 1758 (Figures 8a, b) confirms the 
popularity of the rococo taste in table acces- 

sories and fittings. Presumably made to 
hold various sweets or pastries at the dining 
or tea table, the basket is perched "tiptoe" 
upon four scrolled feet. The entire body of 
the basket form is pierced in a pattern of 
scrolls, foliage, and crosses that virtually 
dissolve the structure into a network of 
highly reflective surfaces. The body of the 
basket has been formed from one sheet of 
silver, hammered into a concave oval. 
With files and special piercing implements 
the craftsman has treated the surface of the 
silver in a form of negative embroidery. 
The strength of the thin body wall would 
necessarily be compromised to accommo- 

date such decoration , but the problem has 
been resolved by soldering a continuous 
band of cast decoration to the edge of the 

Nearly every country developed a range of 
specialized forms in silver to be used at 
table. In Italy, for example, superb tea and 
coffee pots were made in the prevailing 
fashions in active silversmithing centers 
such as Turin, Rome, Venice, and Genoa. 
In the Cooper-Hewitt collection is a cov- 
ered sugar bowl made by an anonymous 
Genoese craftsman around 1768 (Figure 9). 
Italian silversmiths of the mid-i8th century 

used embossed decoration effectively to 
suggest weight and solidity in even di- 
minutive objects; the overlapping leaf pat- 
tern on the base of the bowl and the husk 
garland that surrounds the cover are actually 
embossed from withm to create a substan- 
tial pattern on the thin body wall. The feet 
and the lemon finial were cast separately in 
sand molds, a process that involved taking 
an impression of the desired detail from a 
model in a double-layered box of moist 
sand. When the model was removed from 
the sand, the mold was clamped tightly 
together and molten silver poured into 
the mold to fill the hollow patterned in- 

(. Maker unknown 
Genoa, Italy 
Sugar Bowl, about 1768 

Bequest of John L. Cadwalader 

ia,b. William Cripps (active from about 1743, 
died about 1767) 
London, England 
Tea caddy (one of a pair), 17^2-1753 

Gift of the Trustees of the Estate of 
James Hazen Hyde 

terstices. When cooled, the cast parts were 
removed, cleaned and finished, and finally 
soldered or otherwise attached to the 

The rococo style offered silvermiths a 
wealth of opportunities to exploit the or- 
namental possibilities of techniques such as 
high-relief embossing and cast applied 
decoration. A superb example of the em- 
bosser's art can be seen in one of a pair 
of tea caddies in the Museum collection 
(Figuresi ia-b).The caddies date from 1752— 
1753 and are the work of William Cripps, 
one of the leading London exponents of the 
rococo idiom. The rectangular bodies are 
embossed with exuberant scrolls, shells, 
and flowers . Within a central cartouche is 
depicted a fanciful Oriental figure pluck- 
ing tea leaves from a bush. The entire scene 
is surveyed by an incongruous lion. At each 
side of the caddy is seen an abbreviated 
Eastern landscape with a central architec- 
tural structure. European taste for roman- 
tic and imaginative depictions of the mys- 
tical and legendary Orient was at a zenith 
around the years of mid-century . The style 
of decoration that the taste inspired was 
known as chinoherie, a recurring theme in 
the West from the 17th century to the pres- 
ent. Appropriately, such imaginative de- 
signs were used on numerous tea-related 
forms, although they also appeared in 
much less likely contexts. Even the word 
"caddy"reflecrs an awareness of the source 
of tea, in that it is derived from the Malay- 

lb. WilliumCripps 

Tea caddy, side ^'l 

sian ^O'cAkati, a weight measure used by 
merchants in the tea trade. 

French silver of the 17th and i8th centuries 
is much rarer than that of most other Euro- 
pean countries due to the vagaries of 
economics and the vicissitudes of war and 
fashion. In 1689 Louis XIV requested that 
the nobility release their holdings in silver 
to the Royal Mint in order that France 
might replenish her depleted coffers and 
continue to engage in costly and seemingly 
unending wars. Undoubtedly thousands of 
superb objects of wrought silver were thus 
consigned to the melting pot, and many 
aristocratic households were forced to 
abandon the luxuries of silver for the table. 
Although Louis' edict had a salutary effect 
on the ceramics industry, in that potters 
necessarily stepped in with elegant re- 
placements for tureens, ecuelles, and 
dishes, the damage the King's order caused 
to the history of French silver is incalcula- 
ble. Likewise during the troubled times of 
the French Revolution, silver was often the 
victim of economic disaster due to its value 
as bullion. Those pieces of French man- 
ufacture that have survived to the present, 
day are particularly valuable documents of 
the superior quality of French design and 
the ability of French silversmiths. 

The Cooper-Hewitt collection contains a 
pair of French rococo candelabra by the 
Parisian goldsmith Claude Ballin II. The 
design of the lighting devices is a charming 
testimonial to the rococo style (Figure 12). 

, Claude Ballrn 11(1661-1754) 
Paris, France 

Pair of candelabra . 17 39- 1740 

Anonymous gifr 

Claude Ballin's uncle was one of the many 
goldsmiths who worked for the Sun King, 
Louis XIV, and the younger silversmith 
was trained in this highly esteemed work- 
shop. Claude Ballin II's own career was of 
some importance and included commis- 
sioned work for the Elector Maximilian 
Emanuel of Bavaria. The Cooper-Hewitt 
candelabra have cast stems and removable 
arms, designed in a series of writhing and 
interlocking scrolls and foliage. The or- 
ganic, tumescent stems and the rippling 
branches describe the delicate and graceful 
choreography ot the rococo. Ballin's de- 
signs for such objects were clearly related to 

the circulated works of the great 18th- 
century French ornemanistes . 

Silversmiths in the i8th century were re- 
quired to produce objects for widely differ- 
ing clients and an equal diversity of tastes. 
Certain silversmiths specialized in particu- 
lar forms, such as casters, spoons, or salvers 
while others produced or retailed in their 
shops a wide variety of objects from the 
most elaborate and expensive to the 
simplest and most ordinary. For those who 
succeeded with particular merit and dis- 
tinction, work might even include an ap- 
pointment to a member of the royal family 

or commissions for the aristocracy. Particu- 
larly in London, such patronage and favor 
were eagerly sought, for they assured one's 
reputation as well as one's income. A typi- 
cal example of the progress of a silversmith 
into the ranks of the leaders of taste and 
fashion is seen in the career of Thomas 
Heming. In addition to the cake basket 
already discussed {Figures 8a, b), the 
Museum collection contains a monumental 
and unusual tea urn by this prolific artist 
(Figures 13a, b). The son of a Shropshire 
tradesman, Thomas Heming was appren- 
ticed in 1738 tobecomeasilversmith, learn- 
ing his craft from a brilliant French 

13a, b. Thomas Heming (active from 1745, 
died between i79j-i8o[) 
London, England 
Tea urn, \Tj-j-\-j-ji 

Gift of the Trustees of the Estate 
of James Hazen Hyde 

Huguenot silversmith, Peter Archambo. 
Heming's abilities and talents attracted 
royal attention, and in 1760 he was ap- 
pointed Principal Goldsmith to King 
George III. In 1782 a scandal regarding the 
bills submitted for his work led to his re- 
placement in this distinguished position, 
but during his active years Heming pro- 
duced some of the finest works in silver 
among his London contemporaries. 

The design of the tea urn in the Museum 
collection transforms a functional object 
into a bold sculptural statement. A finely 
modelled figure of Atlas supports the urn. 

On his shoulders is the receptacle for water 
in the form of a globe. Depicted in four 
roundels on the globe are allegories of the 
four continents, carrying on an icono- 
graphic tradition already noted in the 17th 
century (Figures la-f). The urn is fitted 
with a heating plug that can be inserted 
under the globe. The most ingenious as- 
pect of the design, however, is in the clever 
disguising of the spigot from which the hot 
water issues. With the aid of a key that may 
be inserted beneath a hinged medallion at 
the side, the tap can be turned to cause 
water to flow from the hollow right hand 
pendant garland. Such clever manipulation 

14- Maker unknown 
London, England 
Hot water jug, 1781-1782 
Silver, wood 

Bequest of Mrs. John Innes Kane 

15. Jean-Baptisce-Claude Odiot (1763-1850) 
Paris, France 

Teapot, 1818-1819 


Gift of James Hazen Hyde 

1946-76- i 

ijb. Borghese coat of arms on Odiot teapot 

of functional forms, frequently encoun- 
tered in 18th-century decorative arts, is one 
of the most delightful aspects of design in 
the period. 

By the later decades of the i8th century, the 
seeming frivolity of the rococo had been 
supplanted by a revival of forms derived 
from the classical world, and silversmiths 
emulated the shapes of ceramics in domes- 
tic items such as coffee pots, tureens, and 
hot water jugs (Figure 14). The purity of 
form and minimal decoration used on hol- 
loware items such as this jug permitted 
craftsmen to produce objects within a 

shorter period of time, thus reducing labor 
costs while maintaining the sales price. By 
the late 18th century, silversmiths could 
also obtain rolled sheet silver that could be 
cut and soldered into hollow cylinders or 
cones, obviating the hours necessary to 
hammer a form or "raise" it from a solid 
piece of thick silver. The economic justifi- 
cation for speedier production was also 
based on a rapidly expanding market for 
the purchase of silver, and from the grow- 
ing competition that silversmiths felt from 
the flourishing Sheffield plate industry that 
could provide silver-clad copper in the cur- 
rent taste at greatly reduced prices. 

Not all silversmiths around the turn of the 
19th century treated neo-classical styles as a 
simple reduction in effort, and superb 
examples of the classical taste emanated 
from workshops in London and Paris. One 
of the leading concerns that worked in the 
lare neo-classical or Empire taste was the 
Parisian firm of Odiot (Figures 15-16). The 
Museum collection includes a bold silver 
teapot and cream jug from the Odiot work- 
shops. The pieces bear the engraved arms of 
the Borghese family (Figure igh). Jean- 
Baptiste-Claude Odiot was the head of the 
firm at the time when these pieces were 
made. The firm was a large one, and 

i6. Jean-Baptiste-Claude Odiot (1763-18J0) 
Paris, France 
Cream jug. iSiS-iSrg 

Gift of James Hazen Hyde 

Charles Odiot 

Paris, France 

Centerpiece, about 1840 


Gift of the Trustees of the Estate 

of James Hazen Hyde 

numerous craftsmen were employed in dif- 
ferent aspects of the production. 

The Odiot firm received commissions for 
numerous important works, including 
silver for Napoleon and later, for Louis 
XVIII. Nineteenth-century production at 
the Odiot workshop, particularly toward 
the middle of the century, extended the 
range of display pieces to incredible pro- 
portions. A table centerpiece and compote 
bearing the arms of Solomon Rothschild 
(Figure 17) is a tour-de-force statement in 
the use of precious materials, but with a 
somewhat less than successful montage of 
derivative form and decoration. 


i8. Maker's mark: EB 
London, England 
Tray, 1823-1824 

Gift of Mrs. J. Insley Blair 
1950-37- 1 

By the early 19th century, silver in the clas- 
sical taste has developed from a delicate 
18th-century reticence of form and decora- 
tion into a style of massive proportions and 
pompous bearing. A large tray, weighing 
220 ounces and measuring over two feet in 
diameter (Figure 18), combines classical 
references with a return of the Rococo. The 
elaborate cast and applied border of the tray 
is composed of figures, masks, animals, 
and flowers, but in the center is chased 
foliate scrollwork derived from rococo pat- 
terns. Nineteenth-century silver of un- 
usual weight and proportion was fre- 
quently commissioned or purchased for 

commemorative purposes. This tray has a 
particularly interesting history, inscribed 
on the underside for posterity: 

This salver was bought March 1824 by Major Genl . 
Fuller with a portion of the prize money awarded to 
his late lamented brother Col. Wm. Fuller of the 1st 
Dragn. Gds. in commemoration of his having fallen 
Gloriously at the head of his Regiment whilst leading 
It on to Victory at the Memorable Battle of Waterloo 
on the 18th of June i8ij. 

Revivals of past styles continued through 
the 19th century and included silver in the 
fashionable Gothic, Rococo, Renaissance, 
and Middle Eastern tastes. A plethora of 
styles could be seen in the workshops of 

silversmiths in Europe and America; by 
i8ji , when the Great Exhibition was held 
in England, the styles were so numerous 
that one attempt to classify them included 
nine major sources of influence on Euro- 
pean art and decoration — Egyptian, Greek 
and Roman; Byzantine, Saracenic, and 
Gothic; and Renaissance, Cinquecento, 
and Louis Quatorze. Among the great 
number of silversmiths who exhibited in 
i8ji was Joseph Angell, the scion of a Lon- 
don family of silversmiths. One work that 
Angell displayed and which received ap- 
probation from viewers was the "Vintage" 
jug, of which the Cooper-Hewitt has an 

19. Joseph Angell III 
(about i8i6-about 1891) 
London, England 
"Vintage" jug. [854-1855 

Gift of Miss Louise B. Scott 

18^4-1855 version (Figure 19). 

The facetted body of the jug and the 
appHed "cage" of architectural elements, 
grapevines, and laboring putti, lend the 
object a Gothic flavor, in spite of the fact 
that few individual motifs are related in 
any way to medieval silver design. 

American silver in the 19th century played 
out a similar fugue of competing styles. 
The Rococo revival found many champions 
in prolific centers of silver manufacturing 
such as Providence, Rhode Island, Balti- 
more, New York, Boston, and New Or- 
leans, to mention only a few. The firm of 


20. Hyde and Goodrich 
New Orleans, Louisiana 
Creaiti jug. about i8jj 

Gift of Mr. Harvey SmitI 

Hyde and Goodrich, located on Chartres 
Street in New Orleans, not only produced 
silver that bears their mark and often that 
of the craftsman working for them (Figure 
20), but also imported jewelry, watches, 
plated wares, guns, and pistols. 

Typical of 19th-century American silver 
history, as in so many other areas of the 
decorative arts, was the foundation and 
growth of enormous manufactories that 
permitted rapid mass production of domes- 
tic articles. The larger ofthe silver factories 
frequently absorbed smaller workshops in 
the immediate area and eventually became 

21. Tiffany and Company 
New York 

Pitcher, about 1865- [870 

Bequest of Mrs. John Innes Kane 

major corporate entites in the retail silver 
trade. Among the American firms whose 
work is represented in the Museum collec- 
tion , three in particular deserve attention 
since the development of their style and 
techniques are indicative of a majority of 
silver manufacturers. 

Tiffany and Company, Inc. of New York 
was founded in 1837 wirh the partner- 
ship of Charles L. Tiffany and John B. 
Young. Although silver was retailed by 
Tiffany and Young, it was under the direc- 
tion of Edward C. Moore, who joined the 
firm later, that Tiffany and Company 

22. Tiffany and Company 
New York, New York 
Tea and coffee sen'ice, 20th century 

Gift of Mr. Roswell Miller 

achieved a truly distinctive and interna- 
tionally recognized style. In 1852 Tiffany 
and Company formally adopted the En- 
glish sterling alloy, and their silver was 
marked to indicate this standard. In the 
Cooper-Hewitt collection is a water pitcher 
dated to the 1865- 1870 period ofthe firm 
(Figures 2ia-c). The entire body ofthe 
pitcher is covered with floral motifs against 
a stippled ground. The individual motifs 
are embossed from the interior to create 
raised areas on the surface; each swelling 
has been reworked from the surface with 
hammer and punches to create fine details 
and textures. This two-step process, 

Details of Tiffany pitcher 

showing repousse 


known as repousse {literally, "re-pushed"), 
creates a negative mirror image of the pat- 
tern on the interior of the object (Figure 
2 lb, 2ic). Inaddition to elegant domestic 
wares and specially commissioned services 
for distinguished clients, a large portion of 
Tiffany and Company's output was used for 
commemorative and presentation pur- 
poses . A seven-piece tea service (Figure 2 2 ) 
in the extremely popular "Chrysan- 
themum" pattern illustrates the monu- 
mentality of scale and weight common to 
many Tiffany services. 

Like New York, Philadelphia supported an 

impressive number of silver manufactories 
from the early 19th century onward. The 
Bailey, Banks & Biddle Company was 
started in 1832 as a partnership between 
Joseph Trowbridge Bailey and Andrew 
Kitchen. Their workshop and retail outlet 
was located on Chestnut Street in the city. 
Following the death of Kitchen, the firm 
remained within the Bailey family, al- 
though subsidiary partnerships were 
formed. In 1878, the firm became Bailey, 
Banks & Biddle. The company produced 
domestic wares in a multitude of styles; 
among the most charming, however, is the 
Japanese-inspired pattern in repousse work 

23- Bailey, Banks & Biddle Company 
Philadelphia Pennsylvania 
Tea and coffee service, about 1888 
Gift of Mrs. Norris W. Harl;ness 

seen on a tea service in the Museum collec- 
tion, dated to the late 1880s (Figure 23). 
Vines, butterflies, and flowers enrich each 
piece, and the entire service is self-con- 
sciously Orientalized by the design of all 
pieces in the shape of squares. Handles and 
spouts are set at the corners lending a sense 
of geometric order to the lush ensemble. 

A third great force in the history of 19th- 
century American silver was the Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island firm of Gorham. Jabez 
Gorham, thefounderof the vast and highly 
successful company, was born in Provi- 
dence in 1792, and learned the art of sil- 


24- Gorham Company 

Providence, Rhode Island 

Coffee sen'ice, 1903 


Gift of Mrs. Edward C. Moen 


versmithing as an apprentice to Nehemiah 
Dodge. Before 1820, Gorham was in control 
of his own workshop, in which he manufac- 
tured a substantial quantity of jewelry. The 
concern went through a series of name 
changes throughout the 19th century. In 
the early 20th century the firm began to 
acquire other smaller silver manufactories, 
including the Mt. Vernon Company Silver- 
smiths, Inc., and the Alvin Silver Com- 
pany. A coffee service from the early 20th 
century in the Cooper-Hewitt collection 
(Figure 24) is ornamented in the American 
version of the art nouveau style. The 
English art nouveau designer William 

Christmas Codman worked at the factory 
in the late 19th century and helped to 
popularize the hammer-texture surface ap- 
pearance on manufactured goods sold by 
Gorham under the name "Martele." The 
Museum coffee service is smooth finished, 
each piece enveloped by swirling floral 
motifs. A sinuous profile and handle and an 
exaggerated Middle Eastern neck and 
spout on the coffee pot suggest a conserva- 
tive approach to art nouveau exoticism 
typical of many 19th-century American 

2£. Liberty and Company 
London, England 
Fooled dish, 1903-03, made by 
Haseler of Birmingham 
Silver, opals 
Anonymous gift 

Of all the firms that produced art nouveau 
silver in England, few achieved the general 
popular acceptance of Liberty and Com- 
pany (Figure 25). Established in 1875 on 
Regent Street, Liberty's labelled them- 
selves "jewellers, goldsmiths and silver- 
smiths , dealers in gold , silver and precious 
stones, curios and articles ofvertu." Work 
of noted designers was sold by Liberty and 
Company, including the masterful designs 
ofC. R. Ashbee, founder ofthe Guild of 
Handicrafts. Liberty's "Cymric" line, of 
which this small footed dish is an example, 
blended archaic Welsh motifs with the sinu- 
ous line of art nouveau. This dish, made in 

Birmingham by the firm of Haseler who 
supplied a considerable quantity of silver to 
Liberty's, also incorporates cabochon opals 
into the graceful design ofthe object. 

In spite ofthe nearly universal popularity 
of art nouveau (known in Italy as "stile 
Liberty"), other revivalist trends that had 
surfaced in the 19th century continued to be 
nourished by prolific and eccentric de- 
signers. A unique survival ofthe 1890s de- 
cade is an unusual Italian coffee service in a 
florid neo- Renaissance style (Figure 26). 
The service, which iricorporates 16th- 
century grotesques, rinceaux, and putti 

into the complex surface pattern, was made 
by a relatively unknown silversmith named 
Agostino Coppini . The tray ofthe service is 
inscribed on the underside, indicating that 
the service received a silver medal award at 
the 1898 Turin Exposition. 

Silver in the 20th century has reflected 
many ofthe concerns of designers in all 
aspects ofthe decorative arts, not the least 
important of which was the resolution of 
the relationship between the individual 
silversmith and the machinery of mass pro- 
duction. Although the separation of art 
and industry into two adjunct endeavors 

. Agostino Coppini 

Coffee sen'ice, about 1898 

GiftofMrs. J.A.Q. Franks 
1977-62- [-5 


7' r 

mimnmnmyvmimai^ .iminmnmiiiiii yi l M" •«"'"'""""" 

■ & ■ 


27. Josef Hoffmann (1870-19J6) 
Vienna, Austria 
Bowl. 1917 

Gift of Ely Jacques Kahn 


28. Dagobert Peche (1887-1923) 
Vienna, Austria 
Vase, about 1920 

Gift of Ely Jacques Kahn 

can be traced back through the 19th cen- 
tury, many designers in the present century 
have been acutely sensitive to the problems 
of design as it affects the objects of daily life 
in a rapidly changing and highly indus- 
trialized world. The Cooper-Hewitt collec- 
tion contains objects in silver from the 
early decades of the century, including two 
superb pieces of silver by artists associated 
with the Wiener Werkstaette — Josef 
Hoffman (Figure 27) and Dagobert Peche 
(Figure 28). Many designers for decorative 
arts during this period were disenchanted 
with the profusion of seemingly senseless 
ornament typical of art nouveau design and 
were equally vocal in their objections to the 
profusion of revival styles that made up the 
history of the 19th century. Joseph 
Hoffman, along with Koloman Moser, di- 
rected the activities of the Wienet 
Werkstaette. Hoffman's aesthetic sensibil- 
ity revealed itself in the design of objects 
intended fot functional use, but with little 
or no unnecessary ornamenation; the silver 
bowl in the Museum collection, dated 1918, 
is less severe than many of Hoffman's other 
designs for silver The lyrical quality in this 
work by Hoffman is matched in the vase by 
a later arrival at the Wiener Werkstaette — 
Dagobert Peche. Peche's design incorpo- 
rates floral motifs in the design, consisting 


29. Anna Krohn Graham 
United States 
Travelling flatware , 1978 

Gift of Aaron Faber Gallery 

of twining foliage. 

The Museum's nascent collection of con- 
temporary silver includes pieces of jewelry, 
holloware, and flatware by contemporary 
American and European designers. Among 
the more recent acquisitions is a travelling 
flatware service by Anna Krohn Graham 
(Figure 29). The knife, fork, and spoon are 
designed to fit into one another in a series of 
interlocking curves. The overall design of 
the set unites both form and function in a 
sculptural statement that emphasizes the 
inherent qualities of silver — reflectiveness, 
purity of color, and ability to be readily 
manipulated in complex constructions. 

Silver has managed to survive the harsh 
reality of economic necessity because it has 
been cherished and preserved by individu- 
als and museums. This ancient and re- 
spected craft, which has made its influence 
felt throughout nearly every historic 
period, is preserved for future generations 
in the collections of the Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum, the Smithsonian Institution's 
National Museum of Design. 

David Revere McFadden 
Curator of Decorative Arts 

Selected Bibliography of Introductory Books on Silver 

Avery, C. Louise. Early American Silver. New York: Russell and Russell, 1969. 

Banister, Judith. An Introduction to Old English Silver. London: Evans Bros., 196^. 

— . English Silver. London: Hamlyn, 1969. 

Buhler, Kathryn C. American Silver. Cleveland; World Publ. Co., 1950. 

Bulgari, C.G. Argentieri gemmari e orafi d'ltalia. Rome: Lorenzo del Turco, 19^8. 

Came, Richard. Silver. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1961. 

Carpenter, Charles H. Tiffany Silver. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1978. 

Clayton, M. The Collector s Dictionary of the Silver and Gold of Great Britain andNorth America. New York and Cleveland: The World 

Publishing Co., 1971. 
Culme, J. dindStTding, ].G. Antique Silver and Silver Collecting. London, New York, Sydney, Toronto: Hamlyn, 1973. 
— . Nineteenth Century Silver. London: Country Life Books, 1977. 
Davis, Frank. French Silver. New York: Praeger, 1970. 
Delieb, Eric. Silver Boxes. London: H. Jenkins, 1968. 

Dennis, Faith. Three Centuries of French Domestic Silver; its makers and its marks. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, i960. 
Fales, Martha Gandy. Early American Silver for the Cautious Collector. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1970. 
Finlay, Ian. Scottish Gold and Silver Work. London: Chatto & Windus, 195^6. 

Frederiks, J. W. Dutch Silver from the Renaissance until the end of the eighteenth century, 4 vols. The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 19^2-1961 . 
Grimwade, Arthur G. London Goldsmiths 1697-1837. London: Faber and Faber, 1976. 
Hayward, John F. Huguenot Silver in England, 1688-1727. London: Faber and Faber, 19^9. 

Holland, Margaret. Old Country Silver: an account of English provincial Silver, New York: Newton Abbott, David & Charles, 197 1. 
Honour, Hugh. Goldsmiths and Silversmiths. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1971. 

Hood, Graham. American Silver: A History of Style, 1650-1900. New York, Washington, D.C.: Praeger, 1971. 
Hughes, Graham. Modem Silver throughout the World 1880-1967. New York: Crown, 1967. 
Jackson, Charles James. An Illustrated History of English Plate. . . London: Country Life, 191 1, reprinted, 1967. 
Lever, Christopher. Goldsmiths and Silversmiths of England. London: Hutchinson & Co., 197J. 
Link, Eva M. The Book of Silver. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1973. 

McClinton, Katherine Morrison. Collecting American 19th-century Silver. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1968. 
McNab, Jessie. Silver (The Smithsonian Illustrated Library of Antiques). New York: Cooper-Hewitt Museum, 1981 . 
Oman, Charles. English Domestic Silver. London: A & C Black Ltd., 1965. 
Rainwater, Dorothy T. American Silver Manufacturers. Hanover, Pa.: Everybody's Press, 1966. 
Rowe, Robert. Adam Silver, London: Faber and Faber, 1965. 
Taylor, G. Silver. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1964. 
Wardle, Patricia. Victorian Silver and Silver Plate. New York: Universe Books, 1970. 



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